W. E. Yates's Theatre in Vienna: A Critical History, 1776-1995 PDF
By W. E. Yates
Vienna is of crucial value within the complete heritage of drama, opera and operetta, and for greater than a century used to be the single German-speaking urban to maintain a theatrical existence corresponding to that of Paris or London. this can be the 1st normal background in English of recent theater in Vienna, protecting the interval from its beginnings within the 1770s as much as the current. It takes complete account of the social, political and highbrow contexts of theatrical tradition, and gives a wealth of authentic details in response to unique records and updated scholarship. All quotations are given in English to advertise greatest accessibility.
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Additional info for Theatre in Vienna: A Critical History, 1776-1995
After the Anschluss in 1938, it was performed both in the Burgtheater and in the Deutsches Volkstheater on Hitler's birthday, 20 April, as an expression of patriotism; three years later it was banned on Hitler's personal command as a document of political freedom. 44 A hundred years earlier, when Schiller's dramas, together with Grillparzer's, drew higher attendance figures per performance in the Burgtheater than those of any other dramatists, Wilhelm Tell was second only to Kb'nig Ottokars Gliick und Ende in this respect 45 - a revealing statistic which explains the censor's extreme watchfulness.
THE FIRST COMMERCIAL THEATRES Until 1776, the lessees of the two court theatres held exclusive licences for all public entertainments, including masked balls and firework displays as well as theatrical performances. Any one else wanting to mount an occasional entertainment required their permission and had to pay a licence fee. The effective monopoly functioned as a form of compensation for the losses sustained by the lessees as a result of the court hold over their operations - allocations of free boxes, for example, and days of enforced closure for reasons of state.
But the idea was generally in the air; a 'national theatre' was also opened in Mannheim in 1779. These theatres were conceived as being financed out of state or court funds, even if that was not always maintained, and were under state or court authority. In Mannheim, where the repertory centred on sentimental plays by Iffland and Kotzebue, and Iffland was also the principal actor till 1796 (when he went to Berlin to manage the 'National Theatre' there), what can be seen is in fact the beginnings of middle-class commercial theatre in Germany.
Theatre in Vienna: A Critical History, 1776-1995 by W. E. Yates