Read e-book online The Britannica Guide to the Ideas that Made the Modern World PDF
By Encyclopaedia Britannica Editors, Anthony Grayling
Within the early years of the twenty-first century, principles first proposed over 200 years in the past couldn't be extra compelling. The Enlightenment of the 17th century according to upheaval and uncertainty laid the root stone for contemporary society. an essential primer at the philosophers, thinkers, and scientists-including Isaac Newton, John Locke, Voltaire and Spinoza-whose ideas and concepts created the fashionable international.
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Additional resources for The Britannica Guide to the Ideas that Made the Modern World (Britannica Guide To...(eBook))
Rulers valued them, and their teachers were influential, because they served the state by educating those who would serve. Leading academic figures held posts enabling them to advise the government: the political economist Joseph von Sonnenfels was an adviser to the Habsburgs on the serf question. Lutheranism was another important factor in the evolution of the attitude to authority that makes the German Enlightenment so markedly different from the French. In the 18th century it was further influenced by Pietism, which was essentially a devotional movement though imbued with a reforming spirit.
The term represents a phase in the intellectual history of Europe, but it also serves to define the programmes of reform advocated by influential French writers, philosophers, and scientists, known as ``philosophes'', who were inspired by a common faith in the possibility of a better world. The special significance of the Enlightenment lies in its combination of principle and pragmatism. 2 A HISTORY OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT There are two traditional schools of thought regarding its character and achievements.
The notion of miracles was repugnant to reason, but he was content to leave religion as a mystery, to be a sceptic about scepticism, and to deny that man could reach objective knowledge of any kind. These may appear to have been intellectual games for the few. It could only be a privileged, relatively leisured minority, even among the educated, who actively participated in debate or could even follow the reasoning. The impact was delayed; it was also uneven. In Samuel Johnson's England the independence bestowed by the Anglican clergyman's freehold and the willingness of the established church to countenance rational theology created a shock absorber in the form of the Broad Church.
The Britannica Guide to the Ideas that Made the Modern World (Britannica Guide To...(eBook)) by Encyclopaedia Britannica Editors, Anthony Grayling