Download PDF by Andrea Cipollina, Giorgio Micale: Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients
By Andrea Cipollina, Giorgio Micale
Salinity gradient power, sometimes called blue power and osmotic strength, is the power accessible from the variation in salt focus among feed ideas, as a rule sea water and river water. it's a large-scale renewable source that may be harvested and switched over to electrical energy. effective extraction of this strength isn't straight forward, even though. Sustainable strength from Salinity Gradients offers a complete overview of assets, applied sciences and purposes during this zone of fast-growing interest.
Key applied sciences coated contain strain retarded osmosis, opposite electrodialysis and accumulator blending. Environmental and monetary features also are thought of, including the potential synergies among desalination and salinity gradient strength technologies.
Sustainable power from Salinity Gradients is an important textual content for R&D pros within the strength & water drawn to salinity gradient strength and researchers in academia from post-graduate point upwards.
For greater than ten years the Editors were sharing giant study actions within the fields of renewable strength and desalination, effectively engaging to a few ecu Union study tasks and contributing to the suitable medical literature with greater than a hundred papers and a couple of books on Desalination applied sciences and their coupling with Renewable strength. they're intensely operating within the box of Salinity Gradient strength, accomplishing learn with particular concentration o.n open-loop and closed-loop opposite electrodialysis and strain retarded osmosis.
- Covers purposes of strain retarded osmosis, opposite electrodialysis, and capacitive blending for salinity gradient strength in a single handy volume
- Presents the environmental points and economics of salinity gradient energy
- Explores attainable synergies among desalination and salinity gradient energy
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Extra resources for Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients
1981). Meanwhile, due to the imperfection of the skin layer, solutes leak from the draw solution to the feed. This is usually referred to as solute reverse flux. It causes the loss Skin Support layer layer Draw solution pD,b Salt flux ECP pD,m Draw solution p D,b Salt flux ICP pD,m Δpeff Δpeff pF,m ICP p F,b Water flux Feed solution AL-DS p F,m ECP Water flux p F,b Feed solution AL-FS Fig. 4 Concentration profiles in (left) active layer facing draw solution (AL-DS) and (right) active layer facing feed solution (AL-FS) orientated membranes.
Cellulose triacetate (CTA)-based flat-sheet FO membranes produced by Hydration Technology Innovations (HTI, Albany, OR) have been mostly studied. As displayed in Fig. 10A, the CTA-FO membranes possess a dramatically reduced thickness of around 50 μm compared to conventional RO/NF membranes. , 2011). Furthermore, the embedded woven backing support can provide good mechanical strength. , 2009). , 2012). However, the power densities achieved by the HTI CTA-FO membranes are still below the economically feasible value and their salt leakage is high, although their PRO performances are better than those of RO/NF membranes.
10] reveals that the power density of PRO membranes is highly dependent on ΔP and Jw. The mechanical stability at high hydraulic pressures is therefore one concern for PRO membranes. 4] show that a high Jw is achieved only when membranes have a high water permeability (A), a reasonably low salt permeability (B) and a small support layer structural parameter (S). , 2008). However, early membranes available for tests were traditional RO membranes with a thick support, which are not favourable for PRO due to the severe ICP.
Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients by Andrea Cipollina, Giorgio Micale