Sporting Females: Critical Issues by Jennifer Hargreaves PDF
By Jennifer Hargreaves
1994 North American Society for the Sociology of activity Annual e-book Award
An striking contribution to feminist research of activity from the 19th century to the current day. Jennifer Hargreaves perspectives game as a conflict for keep an eye on of the actual physique and a big zone for feminist intervention. putting ladies on the centre of dialogue, no different booklet is as entire.
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Additional info for Sporting Females: Critical Issues
Socialist feminism developed out of a desire to reassess orthodox Marxist theory on the position of women, in order to understand the complexities of the relationship between, and the relative independence of, capitalist relations and gender relations (Banks 1981; Barrett 1982; Page 1978; Weir and Wilson 1984). But the opposition that has been posed between patriarchy and capitalism has tended to mask the significance of other variables, such as ethnicity, which themselves have a relationship to gender and class.
Patriarchy is defined as a system of power relations by which men dominate women. Radical feminists allege that the ability of men to dominate women is the most basic form of oppression because it is rooted in essential physical and psychological differences between the sexes. Characteristics normally ascribed to men, and associated with sports, such as strength, competitiveness, aggression and assertiveness, are rejected, and characteristics popularly classified as female, such as co-operativeness, grace and tenderness, are celebrated.
Although in sports women are constantly being exploited and unequal gender divisions are constantly being reaffirmed, nevertheless, by ignoring non-sexist attitudes and non-sexist sports, the philosophy of separate development tends to exaggerate the overall extent of sexism. In sports, as in other areas of life, there are numerous, different male/female relationships and there are situations where sex and sexuality, as well as, for example, age, ability, ethnicity, or class are unimportant. In some sports women are unequivocally subordinated in their relationships with men; in other situations women collude in apparently subordinate roles; in some spheres women share power with men and have greater autonomy than in the past; and in a limited number of situations women wield power over men.
Sporting Females: Critical Issues by Jennifer Hargreaves