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By Bille C. Carlson
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The advantage of using either of these two scales is that they enable us to compare histograms constructed on the same class intervals for different samples from the same population. 2. Another graphical aid, the frequency polygon, is obtained from any histo gram by connecting the midpoints of the bars by straight lines. 3. The sample mode is approximated from the histogram by taking the midpoint of the class interval with the largest frequency. That is, if [ c , c ,) has the largest frequency f, then the sample mode is approximately (Ci + c )/2.
The general form of a F 0 R T R A N format statement is Col. ) where A,B,C,may be any of the following instructions: 1. nX is an instruction to skip (that is, do not read) η columns. Thus, 6X skips 6 columns, X skips 1 column, and so forth. 2. / is an instruction to go to the next card, // is an instruction to skip one card and go to the following card, and so forth. 3. Iw is an instruction to read an integer variable consisting of w columns. Thus, 16 reads an integer variable of 6 columns. Integer variables are called fixed-point variables.
2 Descriptive Programs—The Analysis of Continuous Variables In this section we discuss a commonly used packaged program called a descriptive program. For any variable X, discrete or continuous, a typical descrip tive program scans a set of η observations and calculates a frequency table, plots a histogram and calculates sample statistics such as the mean, median, variance, and so forth. From this information the investigator may make certain inferential statements about the population. For example, he can test hypotheses about population means or variances, he can estimate population percentiles, he can test whether the population distribution is normal, and so forth.
Special Functions of Applied Mathematics by Bille C. Carlson