Civil Engineering

Read e-book online Shallow Foundations PDF

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By Robert E. Kimmerling, Federal Highway Administration

ISBN-10: 1410225860

ISBN-13: 9781410225863

This publication is FHWA's basic reference of advised layout and procurement systems for shallow foundations. It provides state-of-the-practice tips at the layout of shallow starting place help of road bridges. the data is meant to be functional in nature, and to specially inspire the most economical use of shallow foundations touching on structural fills. To the best volume attainable, the record coalesces the learn, improvement and alertness of shallow starting place help for transportation constructions during the last a number of a long time. special layout examples are supplied for shallow foundations in numerous bridge aid functions in accordance with either carrier Load layout (Appendix B) and cargo and Resistance issue layout (Appendix C) methodologies. tips can be supplied for shallow origin functions for minor buildings and structures linked to transportation initiatives.

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Sample text

However, as a footing’s dimension increases, the depth of influence also increases. Stated another way, as the footing dimension, B, increases, the stress increase “felt” by the soil extends more deeply below the bearing elevation. The effect of footing width on bearing capacity and settlement is shown conceptually in Figure 5-1. Note that the allowable bearing capacity of a footing is controlled by shear-failure considerations for narrow footing widths. But as the footing width increases, the allowable bearing capacity is limited by the settlement potential of the soils supporting the footing.

46 CHAPTER 5 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN The design of shallow foundations involves calculating an allowable bearing pressure that will (a) maintain an adequate factor of safety relative to shear failure of the bearing soil, and (b) limit the settlement of the foundation to meet serviceability requirements. The allowable bearing capacity of a shallow foundation is defined as the lesser of: • The pressure that will result in a shear failure divided by a suitable factor of safety (FS), or • The pressure that results in a specified limiting amount of settlement.

In low-permeability soils, such as clays, more than 1 week may be required to obtain accurate readings. In this case, the boring should be completed as a piezometer so that water levels can be measured over time. The reasons for obtaining this minimum data are clear; the engineer must have adequate data to determine the soil type and relative density or consistency, as well as the position of the static water level. Methods such as driving open-end rod without obtaining soil samples or taking water-level readings after the last soil sample was removed must be discouraged.

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Shallow Foundations by Robert E. Kimmerling, Federal Highway Administration

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