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By Eugene Hecht
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Extra info for Schaum's Outline of Optics
These two-dimensional detectors allow us, in addition, to glimpse the possibility of both a spatial and spectral resolution. To perform a scan, some devices use a type of acousto-optic deflector used for injecting the beam into the microscope. Indeed, this component can diffract or refract a light wave with an angle dependent on the frequency of the acoustic wave passing through it. We can therefore, by scanning the correct frequency range, move the focal volume inside the plane of the sample. This system has the advantage of coming almost instantaneously to the beginning of the line and can be programmed by the user.
Finally, the objectives listed under the name apochromatic have the highest level of correction. They have, moreover, a greater numerical aperture for a given magnification. They are much more expensive, but are especially recommended for confocal microscopy. It is as well to remember that an objective is designed to work for a certain distance, with a well-defined immersion medium, and for a type of sample that is well suited to the immersion medium. 21 mm). e. by placing them directly against the medium to be observed.
This is what is called the avalanche phenomenon. APDs are very sensitive and the combination of their gain (up to 300) and their good quantum efficiency (>70%) allows them to operate in photon counting. Unfortunately, they are very sensitive to the shot and dark noise which will, moreover, be amplified by the gain. They should therefore be used at low temperatures. Whilst photomultipliers are the most popular, some manufacturers offer a measurement using APD for storing images of samples emitting a low number of photons.
Schaum's Outline of Optics by Eugene Hecht