New PDF release: Real-Time Reservoir Management
By Shah Kabir (Ed.), Omer Izgec (Ed.)
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For the Technology category discussed in this paper, the following lessons learned apply. Measurement Technology (Sensors). • Identify and measure all the parameters needed to optimize for the life cycle. • Sensors must be cost-effective, easy to apply, and should last throughout the life of the field or be replaceable with reasonable cost. • Sensors should address critical surveillance needs of a particular field. • Measurements should be at a frequency that matches the time-constant constraints of the system.
1—An oil and gas production system includes components such as reservoirs, production wells, injection wells, production manifolds, flowlines, separators, heaters, coolers, compressors, scrubbers, and pumps. are also a few flow transmitters to measure flow rates in gas, water, and oil pipes. Flow transmitters for multiphase flow may also be available, but they are rare. Various offline analyzers of parameters including oil-in-water and other product qualities may also be available. The instrumentation varies considerably between different production systems, typically with the age of the system and the country or region in which it is situated.
The value of RTO also depends on its scope. For instance, the value from well optimization or analysis may be limited. But the value increases as the automation and integration level goes higher. That is because superior analysis can be performed, and corrective measures can be planned in advance. Appendix B shows a methodology for calculating value from a hypothetical RTO system applied to a 20,000 STB/D field with 100 producing wells. The RTO costs are embedded in the wellhead costs for this hypothetical example.
Real-Time Reservoir Management by Shah Kabir (Ed.), Omer Izgec (Ed.)