Download e-book for iPad: Principles of Electron Optics. Wave Optics by Peter W. Hawkes, E. Kasper
By Peter W. Hawkes, E. Kasper
The 3 volumes within the rules OF ELECTRON OPTICS sequence represent the first complete therapy of electron optics in over 40 years. whereas Volumes 1 and 2 are dedicated to geometrical optics, Volume 3 is anxious with wave optics and results because of wave size. topics lined include:
Derivation of the legislation of electron propagation from SchrUdinger's equation
Image formation and the concept of resolution
The interplay among specimens and electrons
Electron holography and interference
Coherence, brightness, and the spectral function
Together, those works include a special and informative remedy of the topic. Volume 3, like its predecessors, will supply readers with either a textbook and a useful reference resource.
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Additional resources for Principles of Electron Optics. Wave Optics
10). T h e wave-optical calculations pass essentially t h r o u g h t h e s a m e stages as t h e geometrical calculations. In a first step t h e spatial d o m a i n considered is so close t o t h e optic axis t h a t lens a b e r r a t i o n s can b e ignored; this is t h e paraxial domain. T h e corresponding solution describes perfect image for m a t i o n in wave-optical t e r m s . W h e n t h e corresponding wavefunctions h a v e b e e n established, t h e second step is t o use t h e m in a p e r t u r b a t i o n calculus a n d t h e r e b y include t h e effect of t h e lens a b e r r a t i o n s .
31 or 1956, eq. 10) in t h e following respects: (i) Relativistic correction t e r m s a r e included. (ii) C h r o m a t i c effects a r e included. 20) becomes m o r e clear w h e n we rewrite it t h u s : T h e first t e r m represents t h e kinetic energy of t h e transverse m o t i o n , t h e second a purely q u a d r a t i c focusing potential T h e r i g h t - h a n d side of t h e wave e q u a t i o n shows t h a t t h e role of t h e t i m e t h a s been t a k e n over by t h e axial coordinate z: t h e transformation dz = ν dt w i t h t h e velocity υ = g/m is self-explanatory.
We again a d o p t t h e n o t a t i o n introduced in C h a p t e r 15: t h e cartesian coordinates in t h e l a b o r a t o r y frame are Χ, Υ, ζ a n d t h e coordinates of t h e r o t a t i n g system x,y,z. 12) if we hold X a n d Y constant. T h i s implies t h a t we have t o distinguish carefully between p a r t i a l a n d t o t a l derivatives w i t h respect t o z, as will shortly become obvious. 156) are scalar invariants; t h e subscripts b e h i n d t h e vertical b a r denote p a r t i a l derivatives w i t h respect t o t h e corresponding coordinates.
Principles of Electron Optics. Wave Optics by Peter W. Hawkes, E. Kasper