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By N. N. Egorov, V. M. Murogov, V. S. Kagramanian, M. F. Troyanov, V. M. Poplavski (auth.), Erich R. Merz, Carl E. Walter, Gennady M. Pshakin (eds.)
MOX gas, a mix of weapon-grade plutonium and traditional or depleted uranium, can be used to expend a element of the world's surplus of weapon-grade plutonium. a couple of reactors at present function in Europe with one-third MOX cores, and others are scheduled to start utilizing MOX fuels in either Europe and Japan within the close to destiny. whereas Russia has laboratory-scale MOX fabrication amenities, the know-how is still lower than learn. No fuels containing plutonium are utilized in the U.S.
The 25 shows during this booklet provide a magnificent review of MOX expertise. the next concerns are lined: an up-to-the-minute document at the disposition of ex-weapons Pu in Russia; an research of security features of MOX gasoline configurations of alternative reactor strategies and their working and keep watch over measures; an alternate of knowledge at the prestige of MOX utilisation in present strength vegetation, the fabrication expertise of varied MOX fuels and their behaviour in perform; a dialogue of the common nationwide ways through Russia and the western international locations to the utilisation of Pu as MOX gasoline; an advent to new rules, bettering the disposition choice of MOX gasoline exploitation and destruction in present and destiny complicated reactor structures; and the id of universal learn parts the place outlined projects will be initiated in cooperative partnership.
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Additional resources for Mixed Oxide Fuel (Mox) Exploitation and Destruction in Power Reactors
4. Records, reports and all supplying documentation at russian facilities should be adjusted to meet international standards. 5. Measurements instrumentations, methods and procedures need modernization to meet international standards also. SECURITY AND SAFEGUARDS ASPECTS OF PLUTONIUM FACILITIES IN BNFL, UK DrRHOWSLEY Head ofSecurity and International Safeguards, British Nuclear Fuels pic, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire. WA3 6AS. UK. 1. Introduction The processing and storage of plutonium at BNFL' s Sellafield site started in the early 1950's and included civil plutonium from 1964 onwards.
The scheme shown in Fig. 2 takes into account the necessity of producing mixed oxides with several plutonium concentrations to fabricate profiled fuel assemblies. According to preliminary calculation (made at the Kurchatov Institute) of neutron-physical characteristics of WWER-1000 core, when replacing 113 of uranium fuel assemblies by uranium-plutonium ones, it will be necessary to produce three kinds of mixed oxides containing 2,4, 3,6, and 5% of fissionable plutonium. After the production of mixed oxides with, assigned plutonium concentration further operations ofmixed fuel fabrication (Fig.
Various suggestions have been made to get rid of the weapons plutonium once it has been separated. Burning-up the plutonium as MDX fuel in existing or specially designed reactors, and thus deriving some energy benefit, seems to present an attractive alternative. MDX fuel technology and utilization in existing reactors has become mature in several countries. If plutonium arisings cannot be absorbed commercially, much of the plutonium will have to be treated as waste. A substantial international R&D effort is required to find acceptable solutions other than storage.
Mixed Oxide Fuel (Mox) Exploitation and Destruction in Power Reactors by N. N. Egorov, V. M. Murogov, V. S. Kagramanian, M. F. Troyanov, V. M. Poplavski (auth.), Erich R. Merz, Carl E. Walter, Gennady M. Pshakin (eds.)