New PDF release: Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality
By Bernard Grofman
This booklet is the main updated therapy of balloting rights legislations and the varied controversies surrounding minority illustration. Written through authors with first-hand adventure within the case legislation, the booklet info the evolution of the legislation and precedent from 1965 ahead. The authors clarify the fundamental common sense underlying the key judgements, introduce the reader to the strategies for developing criteria of illustration and measuring discrimination, and talk about the main issues of contemporary competition. within the concluding bankruptcy, the authors handle the results of the hot advancements in vote casting rights legislation for the way forward for illustration in the USA.
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Additional info for Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality
It thereby restores the legal standards, 40 Minority Representation and Voting Equality based on the controlling Supreme Court precedents, which applied in voting discrimination claims prior to the litigation involved in Mobile v. Bolden. S. Senate, 1982, p. 2) According to the report, requiring proof of purposeful discrimination is inconsistent with the original legislative intent of Section 2 as well as court precedent prior to the Bolden decision. Courts applying the statutory results test need not examine the decision makers' intent in creating or maintaining challenged electoral schemes, and they cannot rely solely on the degree to which minority groups are represented on legislative bodies in making their determination.
Reagan on June 29. Section 2 now reads: (a) No voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or standard, practice, or procedure shall be imposed or applied by any State or political subdivision in a manner which results in a denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color, or in contravention of the guarantees set forth in section 4(f)(2). (b) A violation of subsection (a) if, based on the totality of circumstances, it is shown that the political processes leading to nomination or election in the State or political subdivision are not equally open to participation by members of a class of citizens protected by subsection (a) in that its members have less opportunity than other members of the electorate to participate in the political process and to elect representatives of their choice.
Minority Representation and the Quest for Voting Equality by Bernard Grofman