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By S. Boulter
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Additional info for Metaphysics from a Biological Point of View
Propositions that could not be taught within the university on pain of excommunication. The condemned propositions of particular interest for present purposes were those which threatened God’s omnipotence. The following is a representative sample: (1) That what is impossible absolutely speaking cannot be brought about by God or by another agent. This is erroneous if we mean what is impossible according to nature. (2) That God cannot be the cause of a new-made thing and cannot produce anything new.
For the logic of falsification is such that whenever a recalcitrant observation arises it is open to the scientist to abandon or qualify the theory being tested, or an auxiliary hypothesis, or to question the initial conditions under which the experiment or observation was carried out – the choice not being forced by the empirical facts or logic alone. Now if the choice to save or reject the theory in question is based on pragmatic considerations alone, then the theory has not been saved or rejected on truth related grounds.
128). In order to account for this obvious discrepancy Kant argued for a possibility that ‘never occurred’ to Hume, namely, ‘ ... that the understanding might itself ... , p. 127). Kant did not maintain that the only necessity is logical necessity – there are, after all, on his account, synthetic a priori propositions. But because he maintains that necessity is not to be found in the world in and of itself, and so cannot be discovered a posteriori, Kant is forced to argue that the ground of this necessity lies in the mind-dependent nature of the phenomenal world.
Metaphysics from a Biological Point of View by S. Boulter