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Yet, all types of oil extraction have environmental impacts. In the Alberta province of Canada lie the Athabasca tar sands—the world’s largest proven oil reserve—easily recoverable just below the rich boreal forests and peat bogs. 8 While it can cost $25 to $30 per barrel to process the crude oil from tar sands, much higher oil prices make recovery economically feasible. However, to access the oil-bearing tar sands, the land must be laid bare and energy and water resources are required. The extraction process requires heating the oil, which uses the equivalent of one barrel of natural gas for each two barrels of oil recovered.
It identifies an atmospheric concentration threshold of 450 ppm of CO2, beyond which the environment is likely to endure irreversible, detrimental impacts. At present rates of increases, this threshold will be breached within 35 years. Averting such a global catastrophe requires rapid, sustained and dramatic cuts in CO2 emissions by industrialized countries plus largescale technology investments in developing nations. This chapter calls for a worldwide shift to a low-carbon economy, offering a variety of tools—innovative carbon reduction technologies—that will quell the rise in GHG emissions.
2008). Hot, flat and crowded. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 214. 4. Energy Information Administration (2007, September 18). International energy annual 2005. xls, accessed 3 November 2007. 5. Energy Information Administration (2007, May). International energy outlook 2007. html, accessed 3 November 2007. 6. S. EPA (2008, February). S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks1990-2006. Public Review Draft. 7. Ibid. 8. Wikipedia. Methane. org/wiki/Methane, accessed 8 March 2008. The chemical formula for this process is CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2H2O.
Hydrogen Use in Internal Combustion Engines