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By Yeshajahu Pomeranz
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A) Segment of an unswollen granule, with associated micelles represented as thickened sections. (B) Segment of a swollen granule, showing disoriented but still persistent micelles. (From T. J. Schoch, Corn Products C o . ) 40 CHAPTER 2 Carbohydrates: Starch When the granule is crushed, it fractures along radial lines of weakness in amor phous areas, although this also means mechanical breakage of occasional primaryvalence glucosidic bonds. Prior to gelatinization, water merely seeps in and satu rates the open intermicellar areas in the granule.
2. 3. 4. Reduction of aw by dehydration or evaporation. Microbiological stabilization by thermal or chemical means. Inhibition of enzymatic activity by blanching. Control of physical and/or chemical deterioration by adding antioxidants, chelating agents, emulsifiers, or stabilizers. 5. Enrichment by the addition of nutrients. Water activity in IMFs can be reduced by adding polyhydric alcohols, sugars, and/or salt. The main antimycotic agents are propylene glycol and sorbates. Several physical and chemical treatments are available to improve organoleptic properties and consumer acceptance of stored foods.
Because the granules V. Food Applications: Functions of Starch in Foods 47 are so strongly bonded internally, the paste shows little or no breakdown during cooking at 95°C in water. 18). 1 Ν NaOH shows a high peak viscosity and extensive breakdown on cooking, approach ing that of potato starch in water. V. FOOD APPLICATIONS: FUNCTIONS OF STARCH IN FOODS Starches are used in foods for six reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Thickening agents (sauces, cream soups, pie fillings) Colloidal stabilizers (salad dressings) Moisture retention (cake toppings) Gel-forming agents (gum confections) Binders (wafers, ice cream cones) Coating and glazing agents (nut meats, candies) In our culture, the main purposes of starch are aesthetic rather than nutritional: to make foods more pleasing to the eye, to impart better texture and "mouth-feel," to prevent separation of ingredients, and to provide a carrier for delicate flavors.
Functional properties of food components by Yeshajahu Pomeranz