Download e-book for kindle: Failing to Win: Perceptions of Victory and Defeat in by Dominic D. P Johnson
By Dominic D. P Johnson
How do humans make a decision which nation got here out forward in a struggle or a hindrance? Why, for example, used to be the Mayaguez Incident in may well 1975--where forty-one U.S. infantrymen have been killed and dozens extra wounded in a botched hostage rescue mission--perceived as a triumph and the 1992-94 U.S. humanitarian intervention in Somalia, which kept hundreds of thousands of lives, seen as a catastrophe? In Failing to Win, Dominic Johnson and Dominic Tierney dissect the mental components that predispose leaders, media, and the general public to understand results as victories or defeats--often growing broad gaps among perceptions and fact. To make their case, Johnson and Tierney hire frameworks: "Scorekeeping," which specializes in genuine fabric earnings and losses; and "Match-fixing," the place reviews turn into skewed via mindsets, symbolic occasions, and media and elite spin. In case reports starting from the 1962 Cuban Missile predicament and the present conflict on Terror, the authors express that a lot of what we settle for approximately overseas politics and global historical past isn't really what it seems--and why, in a time whilst voters provide or withdraw help in keeping with an imagined view of the result instead of the outcome at the flooring, perceptions of luck or failure can form the result of wars, the destiny of leaders, and the "lessons" we draw from background.
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Extra info for Failing to Win: Perceptions of Victory and Defeat in International Politics
Both sides had the same “after” time point, which was the deal on the table: Israel would give up control of the Gaza Strip, most of the West Bank, and part of Jerusalem. The Israelis tended to compare this proposal with 47 FAILING TO WIN a “before” point in the 1990s, and thereby argued that Israel had made unprecedented concessions which would represent signiﬁcant gains for the Palestinians. 19 Another example comes from the Russian experience in World War II. In this case, moving the “before” time point forward allowed for a more comfortable view of history: “When Russians commemorate the ‘Great Patriotic War,’ their beginning point is June 1941 when Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
According to this approach, observers decide the winners and losers on the basis of a scorecard listing material gains and losses. When people score-keep, their views about who won and who lost directly reﬂect the material outcome of the war or crisis. Score-keeping is one potential explanation of how people make judgments. It is not merely a “straw-man” argument; on the contrary, score-keeping is quite often effective at explaining evaluations of victory and defeat. Indeed, we argue later that score-keeping is the way people should judge victory and defeat.
It’s a state of mind. It then spreads with such radiance and such afﬁrmations that destiny can do nothing but obey. —douchan gersi Appearances to the mind are of four kinds. Things either are what they appear to be; or they neither are, nor appear to be; or they are, and do not appear to be; or they are not, and yet appear to be. —epictetus in john hughes’s 1986 movie Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, the dean of students, Ed Rooney, is in search of his wayward pupil, Ferris Bueller. On his travels, Rooney visits a fast-food restaurant, where a grease-covered television set broadcasts a Chicago Bears game.
Failing to Win: Perceptions of Victory and Defeat in International Politics by Dominic D. P Johnson