Download e-book for iPad: Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Middle by Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann
By Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann
Elections in Asia, written via specialists within the box, offers the first-ever compendium of electoral info for the entire sixty two states in Asia, Australia, and Oceania from their independence to the current. Exhaustive records on nationwide elections and referendum are given in every one bankruptcy. the 2 volumes offers the definative source for historic and cross-national comparisons of elections and electoral process around the world.
Read or Download Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia Volume 1 (Elections in Asia and the Pacific Vol. 1) PDF
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Extra resources for Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia Volume 1 (Elections in Asia and the Pacific Vol. 1)
Immediately before independence all Asian Soviet repub31 In Syria in 1971, 1978, 1985, 1991, 1999 and 2000, in Iraq in 1995. In both republican states there are tendencies to introduce a quasi-monarchical succession of family members to the Presidency. This has already been the case in Syria in 2000, with the succession of Bashshar al-Asad to his father Hafiz al-Asad. 32 The direct elections for Prime Minister held in 1996, 1999 and 2001 in Israel represent a particular institutional arrangement and are therefore excluded from our comparative analysis.
2. 1 Suffrage At the beginning of the 21st century the principles of universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage are generally accepted and applied worldwide. In Asia and the Pacific, however, there are many more deviations from these international standards than in other world regions, especially in the Middle East. In contrast to Central Asia and South Asia where universal suffrage was introduced at the moment of state independence or even long before18, most Middle Eastern countries franchise expansion has been more gradual since the beginning of self-government in the 1920s.
D This category includes proportional representation systems that differ technically among themselves. While Israel's Parliament has been elected in one constituency with a relatively low legal threshold, so that the system comes close to pure PR, in Turkey PR is applied in constituencies of different size with a national threshold of 10%. Sri Lanka finally combines PR in sub-national MMCs with additional seats allocated in a nationwide constituency. For historical variations of the electoral systems refer to the relevant country articles.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Middle East, Central Asia, and South Asia Volume 1 (Elections in Asia and the Pacific Vol. 1) by Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann