Download e-book for iPad: Dynamics of Structures A Primer by Anil K. Chopra
By Anil K. Chopra
This monograph is meant for the reader who's simply within the basics of the dynamics of constructions considering floor shaking and doesn't have the time or want for a proper, distinct therapy and finished insurance supplied in in-depth textual content books.
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Extra info for Dynamics of Structures A Primer
Spacing The spacing s defines the smallest distance between neighboring discontinuities of a set. 32, left). The reciprocal value of the discontinuity spacing s was introduced by Müller (1950) as “discontinuity density” or “intensity number” k of a discontinuity set. 32 Spacing and persistence of discontinuities Persistence Discontinuities are often interrupted by rock bridges, or terminate against other discontinuities (cf. Fig. 15). Such discontinuities, in literature, are also referred to as “impersistent” or “intermittent” discontinuities, in the following are denoted as “non-persistent” discontinuities.
At the large scale stepped and undulating profiles are often designated as “uneven”. 31). 31 Description of the appearance of discontinuities Furthermore, discontinuities can be open or closed and may contain coatings and veins of minerals such as quartz or calcite or may have fillings (Fig. 31). Aperture is an important parameter of open discontinuities since it has an essential influence on the permeability of a rock mass. Apertures, however, are difficult to estimate and to determine (Chapters 6 and 13).
As another example, Fig. 36 shows the structural model of the clay slate, which was illustrated in Fig. 18 and encountered in the construction pit for the powerhouse at the dam site of the Selingue project in Mali. This rock mass is separated by the discontinuity sets Sch, D1 and D2. The intact rock has a planar grain structure caused by the schistosity. The schistosity-parallel discontinuities, Sch, have a mean orientation of and and exhibit rusty coatings and often also fillings of fine-grained soil.
Dynamics of Structures A Primer by Anil K. Chopra