New PDF release: Downs : the history of a disability
By David Wright
For a hundred and fifty years, Down's Syndrome has constituted the archetypal psychological incapacity, simply recognisable by way of designated facial anomalies and actual stigmata. In a slender scientific experience, Down's syndrome is a typical affliction attributable to the presence of all or a part of an additional twenty first chromosome. it truly is named after John Langdon Down, the British asylum clinical superintendent who defined the syndrome as Mongolism in a chain of lectures in 1866. In 1959, the illness was
identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy through the French paediatrician and geneticist Jérôme Lejeune and has due to the fact that been often called Down's Syndrome (in the English-speaking global) or Trisomy 21 (in many ecu countries). yet young children and adults born with this chromosomal abnormality have an immense collective
history past their obvious value to the heritage of scientific science.
David Wright, a Professor within the historical past of drugs at McMaster collage, appears on the care and therapy of Down's victims - defined for a lot of heritage as 'idiots', - from Medieval Europe to the current day. the invention of the genetic foundation of the situation and the profound alterations in attitudes, care, and early id of Down's within the genetic period, displays the interesting scientific and social historical past of the sickness.
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Extra resources for Downs : the history of a disability
The Common Law required a category of the ‘natural fool’, in part to differentiate idiots from those who became ‘fools’, as it were, later on in life. Laws governing the administration of property and inheritance depended upon this fundamental distinction. Parochial ofﬁcials responded to Elizabethan imperatives to provide relief for their destitute poor by identifying and providing for pauper idiots. In doing so they were fulﬁlling their statutory duties to provide relief for the indigent of their parish.
To call special attention. 2 Down supported his novel ethnic formulation by describing the physical stigmata of a specific group of children under his care: The hair is not black, as in the real Mongol, but of a brownish colour, straight and scanty. The face is ﬂat and broad, and destitute of prominence. The cheeks are roundish, and extended laterally. The eyes are obliquely placed, and the internal canthi more than normally distant from one another. The palpebral ﬁssure is very narrow . . The lips are large and thick, with transverse ﬁssures.
However, with the emerging ideas of the Enlightenment the medical uninterest towards idiocy was reversed by the time of the French Revolution in 1789. Idiots ceased to be a mere footnote in medical texts and occupied a surprisingly important role in the emerging ideas of Enlightenment philosophy and scientiﬁc medicine. 28 the philosopher’s idiot The Enlightened Idiot The English philosopher and physician John Locke (1632–1704) is often considered the founder of modern liberalism. Born into a Puritan family in Somerset, Locke attended Westminster School in London where he studied medicine and cultivated his interest in Continental philosophers, such as René Descartes, whose principal philosophical works had been published a couple of decades earlier.
Downs : the history of a disability by David Wright