Discourse on Method and Meditations (Philosophical Classics) - download pdf or read online
By Rene Descartes, F. Sutcliffe
Works from the father of contemporary philosophy. In Discourse on approach, he formulated a systematic strategy comprising 4 ideas, together with to just accept merely what cause acknowledges as "clear and distinct." In Meditations, he explores the mind/body contrast, the character of fact and blunder, the life of God, and the essence of fabric issues.
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Additional info for Discourse on Method and Meditations (Philosophical Classics)
Popular medical texts offered stories of young girls who suffered from ignorance of the onset of menstruation, of middle-aged women who called in a physician for the birth of a child nine months after their periods stopped, never having heard of menopause. One response of physicians, newly organized in the ﬂedgling American Medical Association, was to compel speech, often with threats of even more shameful consequences. 12 Further, it was not at all clear just how forthcoming the nineteenthcentury patient was expected to be.
Hospitals routinely offered or denied treatment on the basis of the patients’ perceived moral state;6 doctors prided themselves on their ability to transform patients’ personal lives and beliefs. 7 Women physicians like Harriot Kezia Hunt and Ruth Gleason saw themselves as family counselors and often asserted that only to women doctors would patients conﬁde “heart histories” and that such conﬁdences would transform both their health and the state of their souls. Then as now, however, conversations between doctors and patients began not with ethical questions but with issues of complaint and diagnosis.
Often, graduates of the Woman’s Medical College invoked the vis medicatrix naturae, and they advocated systemic treatment rather than harsh remedies; medication, rather than surgery. 37 In the accounts of their own medical practice written by such physicians as Harriot K. 38 And the heart history could also support quite invasive and heroic measures. What we might call the canonic form of the heart history can be found in the writing of Harriot Kezia Hunt. In histories of women and medicine, Hunt is usually described as the ﬁrst American woman to make her living as a physician, although there were surely herbalists, Thompsonians, and botanical practitioners before her.
Discourse on Method and Meditations (Philosophical Classics) by Rene Descartes, F. Sutcliffe