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By Murat O. Balaban, Giovanna Ferrentino
Dense section carbon dioxide (DPCD) is a non-thermal strategy for nutrients and pharmaceutical processing that could verify secure items with minimum nutrient loss and higher preserved caliber attributes. Its program is sort of diversified than, for instance, supercritical extraction with CO 2 the place the common solubility of fabrics in CO 2 is within the order of one% and consequently calls for huge volumes of CO 2. by contrast, processing with DPCD calls for less CO 2 (between five to eight% CO 2 by means of weight) and the pressures used are at the least one order of significance lower than these as a rule utilized in extremely excessive strain (UHP) processing. there isn't any seen temperature elevate as a result of pressurization, and common procedure temperatures are round 40°C.
DPCD quickly reduces the pH of liquid meals and since oxygen is faraway from the surroundings, and as the temperature isn't really excessive through the brief technique time (typically approximately 5 mins in non-stop systems), food, antioxidant job, and supplements are far better preserved than with thermal remedies. In pharmaceutical functions, DPCD allows the construction of micronized powders of managed particle dimension and distribution. even if the capital and working charges are larger than that of thermal remedies, they're much less than different non-thermal expertise operations.
This ebook is the 1st to assemble the numerous quantity of study into DPCD and spotlight its effectiveness opposed to microorganisms and enzymes in addition to its power in particle engineering. it really is directed at nutrients and pharmaceutical scientists and technologists operating with DPCD and different conventional or non-thermal applied sciences which could in all probability be utilized in conjunction with DPCD. it is going to even be of curiosity to packaging experts and regulatory agencies.
Chapter 1 advent to Dense section Carbon Dioxide know-how (pages 1–4): Giovanna Ferrentino and Murat O. Balaban
Chapter 2 Thermodynamics of strategies of CO2 with results of strain and Temperature (pages 5–35): Sara Spilimbergo and Ireneo Kikic
Chapter three Experimental dimension of Carbon Dioxide Solubility (pages 37–66): Giovanna Ferrentino, Thelma Calix, Massimo Poletto, Giovanna Ferrari and Murat O. Balaban
Chapter four results of Dense part Carbon Dioxide on Vegetative Cells (pages 67–97): Osman Erkmen
Chapter five results of Dense part Carbon Dioxide on Bacterial and Fungal Spores (pages 99–112): Patricia Ballestra
Chapter 6 results of DPCD on Enzymes (pages 113–134): Murat O. Balaban
Chapter 7 The Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation by means of Carbon Dioxide less than excessive strain (pages 135–155): Maria G. Corradini and Micha Peleg
Chapter eight functions of DPCD to Juices and different drinks (pages 157–175): Murat O. Balaban and Xiaojun Liao
Chapter nine Use of Dense part Carbon Dioxide in Dairy Processing (pages 177–198): Giovanna Ferrentino and Giovanna Ferrari
Chapter 10 Particle Engineering by way of Dense fuel applied sciences utilized to prescribed drugs (pages 199–226): Neil R. Foster, Raffaella Mammucari, Luu Thai Danh and Wen Hui Teoh
Chapter eleven commercial functions utilizing Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for meals (pages 227–238): James T. C. Yuan and John S. Novak
Chapter 12 Outlook and Unresolved concerns (pages 239–264): Luc Van Ginneken, Linsey Garcia?Gonzalez, Kathy Elst and Frank Devlieghere
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Extra resources for Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Food and Pharmaceutical Applications
Above this saturation pressure, the H2O solubility in the CO2-rich phase increases with pressure and temperature. Above the critical temperature, the H2O solubility trend with pressure becomes progressively smoother. The CO2 solubility trend with pressure below the critical temperature reflects two solubility curves for two distinct phases: liquid CO2 above saturation pressures, and gaseous CO2 below these pressures. Above the critical temperature, the CO2 solubility trend reflects the solubility curve for gaseous CO2.
CO2 is also used as supercritical fluid due to its physical properties such as high diffusivity, low viscosity, and high compressibility. However the use of supercritical CO2 has its difficulties such as low solubility in strong polar substances and poor selectivity of some solutes. Some of these drawbacks can be overcome with the use of polar cosolvents, such as methanol or ethanol, or by mixed cosolvents such as acetic acid + acetonitrile or ethanol + acetonitrile, which can improve the solubility of a strong polar organic compound in a nonpolar supercritical fluid.
The data reported by Ng and Robinson (1985) for the hydrate formation curve HL1L2 go up to only 140 bar. For this reason, this representation is not reliable for extrapolation to pressures much above this value. 5 shows that the vapor–liquid (VL) coexistence curve for pure CO2 (Span and Wagner 1996) and the L1L2V curve almost coincide. 825 bar, from Angus et al. 11 bar; Wendland et al. 1999). 6) in terms of a pressure–mole fraction cross-section of the CO2 – H2O phase diagram at 25°C (Spycher et al.
Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide: Food and Pharmaceutical Applications by Murat O. Balaban, Giovanna Ferrentino