Creating the American Junkie: Addiction Research in the by Caroline Jean Acker PDF
By Caroline Jean Acker
Heroin was once just one drug between many who apprehensive innovative period anti-vice reformers, yet by way of the mid-twentieth century, heroin dependancy got here to represent irredeemable deviance. growing the yank Junkie examines how psychiatristsand psychologists produced a development of opiate addicts as deviants with inherently wrong personalities stuck within the grip of a dependency from which few might ever get away. Their portrayal of the cruel city addict helped bolster the federal government's coverage of drug prohibition and created a social context that made the lifetime of the yank heroin addict, or junkie, extra, now not much less, precarious within the wake of revolutionary period reforms.Weaving jointly the debts of addicts and researchers, Acker examines how the development of habit within the early 20th century used to be strongly motivated by way of the pro matters of psychiatrists trying to elevate their scientific authority; by means of the disciplinary goals of pharmacologists to construct a drug improvement infrastructure; and via the yank scientific Association's crusade to minimize prescriptions of opiates and to absolve physicians in inner most perform from the need of treating tricky addicts as sufferers. by contrast, early sociological stories of heroin addicts shaped a foundation for criticizing the criminalization of dependancy. via 1940, Acker concludes, a specific configuration of principles approximately opiate dependancy used to be firmly in position and remained primarily reliable till the big demographic adjustments in drug use of the Nineteen Sixties and Nineteen Seventies brought on alterations within the knowing of addiction—and in public coverage.
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Extra info for Creating the American Junkie: Addiction Research in the Classic Era of Narcotic Control
Several appeals reached the Supreme Court, which was faced with interpreting the vague language of the Harrison Act. While earlier case opinions appeared to leave physicians considerable latitude, a pair of decisions in 1919 upheld 36 Creating the American Junkie the convictions of doctors who had prescribed opiates to addicts, stating that such behavior fell outside the bounds of proper professional practice. The Treasury Department ofﬁcials in charge of enforcing the Harrison Act saw in this language a mandate to prohibit any form of addiction maintenance.
In the early 1920s, the Treasury Department moved against the public clinics that had opened to treat addicts, charging them with dispensing opiates illegally. Within a few years, all the clinics had been closed. Prosecution of private physicians also occurred. Although individual doctors continued to prescribe opiates for addicts (and in some cases served jail terms as a result), leading physicians, with the sanction of the American Medical Association (AMA), came to favor strict enforcement of the Harrison Act.
45 These laws reﬂected the traditional arrangement that the states, not the federal government, had responsibility for regulating the practice of medicine. Thus, the Harrison Act exempliﬁed the expanding regulatory powers taken on by the federal government in the Progressive Era. Ostensibly passed as a taxation measure, with paperwork provisions to track distribution of opiates and some other drugs, the law allowed only physicians and pharmacists to dispense opium, morphine, or heroin to the public.
Creating the American Junkie: Addiction Research in the Classic Era of Narcotic Control by Caroline Jean Acker