Chemistry in America 1876–1976: Historical Indicators - download pdf or read online
By Arnold Thackray
This examine is an outgrowth of our curiosity within the historical past of recent chemistry. The paucity of trustworthy, quantitative wisdom approximately previous technological know-how used to be introduced domestic forcibly to us once we undertook a learn seminar within the comparative historical past of contemporary chemistry in Britain, Germany, and the U.S.. That seminar, which came about on the college of Pennsylvania within the spring of 1975, used to be paralleled through one dedicated to the paintings of the "Annales School". the 2 seminars jointly catalyzed the try and build ancient measures of swap in facets of 1 technology, or "chem ical indicators". the current quantity monitors our effects. probably our labors might be so much usefully in comparison with the paintings of these scholars of medieval technology who commit their most sensible efforts to the identify ment of texts. in simple terms whilst appropriate texts were made from fragmentary and corrupt assets can students movement directly to the extra enjoyable company of creating background. So too within the sleek interval, an important pre liminary to the whole background of any medical career is the developing of trustworthy quantitative details within the type of statistical sequence. This quantity doesn't provide historical past. in its place it presents sure aspect- symptoms -- which may be beneficial to participants attracted to the historical past of yankee chemistry and chemical undefined, and suggestive for policy.
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Additional info for Chemistry in America 1876–1976: Historical Indicators
Baccalaureates awarded annually in chemistry have dropped from roughly a tenth to a hundredth of all bachelors degrees conferred. A third, related trend has been the steady shift away from chemical education as vocational preparation and toward chemical education as cultural instrument. 1. 1-4 plots the same data on semilogarithmic axes. For the past century the trend of degree conft:rral in all subjects has been one of exponential growth on the bachelors, masters, and doctoral levels. 4 This exponential growth is a prime become practicing chemists at all, a trend characterized as "well-established" in another ACS report (IB, ACS, 1973,424; see also IB, ACS, 1977b, 41).
And both may be used in illuminating the place of chemistry in mass culture. 1. Higher Education INDICATOR HIGHLIGHTS: About 400000 baccalaureates and 40000 doctorates in chemistry have been awarded on American campuses in the past century. The enduring trend in the number of degrees conferred has been one of exponential increase. This trend is in no way unique to chemistry but rather is characteristic of the American education system. The rate of growth is greater than the exponential rate of increase of the population.
1... //' /' ' ... , Legend 8ocnelol1 Second - le ..... /.. Trend (e>;ponentlol)--- 01~----~----~-----+-----+-----4-----4----~~----~____~ 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 YEAR Fig. 1-4. Trends in degrees conferred in all fields, by level, 1890-1978. ) CHEMICAL EDUCATION AS CONTEXT 45 enduring trend, characteristic of American higher education. For the purposes of chemical indicators the growth is a "background phenomenon" obviously not explicable in terms of anything unique to the natural sciences, although its effect on those sciences has been profound.
Chemistry in America 1876–1976: Historical Indicators by Arnold Thackray