Download e-book for iPad: Cable-Stayed Bridges: 40 Years of Experience Worldwide by Holger Svensson
By Holger Svensson
The necessity for large-scale bridges is continually starting to be end result of the huge, immense infrastructure improvement worldwide. because the Nineteen Seventies lots of them were cable-stayed bridges. In 1975 the most important span size used to be 404 m, in 1995 it elevated to 856 m, and at the present time it's 1104 m. therefore the economically effective variety of cable-stayed bridges is tending to maneuver in the direction of even greater spans, and cable-stayed bridges are more and more the focal point of curiosity worldwide.
This e-book describes the basics of layout research, fabrication and development, within which the writer refers to 250 outfitted examples to demonstrate all features. foreign or nationwide codes and technical laws are noted basically as examples, reminiscent of bridges that have been designed to German DIN, Eurocode, AASHTO, British criteria. The chapters on cables and erection are a tremendous concentration of this paintings as they signify crucial distinction from different different types of bridges.
The examples have been selected from the bridges during which the writer used to be in my view concerned, or the place the consulting engineers, Leonhardt, Andr? and companions (LAP), participated considerably. different bridges are integrated for his or her designated structural features or their checklist span lengths. crucial layout engineers also are presented.
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Additional info for Cable-Stayed Bridges: 40 Years of Experience Worldwide
Modern cable-stayed bridges have stay cables with well-defined and tuned cable forces which transfer their loads directly, Fig. 3. Their horizontal components are introduced as compression forces into the beam. The forestay cables of the main span are tied back by the backstay cables to the ends of the bridge where they are anchored in hold-down (or anchor) piers. There each cable force is split into two components, the vertical force which is anchored to the ground and the horizontal force which is transmitted into the beam in compression.
109, a driver’s view on the bridge ahead is inadequate, Fig. 110. The driver only sees a mast in front, whose meaning is not immediately apparent. This creates a feeling of uncertainty. ’ Even an uninitiated observer has an instinctive feeling whether the transfer of forces in a bridge appears plausible. This rule has recently been frequently violated by spectacular designs under the catchwords ‘signature bridge’ or ‘icon bridge’ which have been developed for appearance only, without regard to the efficient flow of forces.
The strong tieback cables are distinguished by their larger sag against the regular cables and thus show the flow of forces. Visual intersections between the different types of cables have been accepted. Another solution with a more direct flow of forces was possible for the Second Orinoco River Bridge. Two main spans of 300 m each with a distance in between were required for navigational clearance. Two regular cable-stayed bridges back to back were the solution, Fig. 121. The hold-down pier in the center is designed as an A-frame in order to also carry the important breaking forces of the railway over the full length of the bridge.
Cable-Stayed Bridges: 40 Years of Experience Worldwide by Holger Svensson