New PDF release: Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems [...]
By Miguel Angel Altieri; Clara Ines Nicholls
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Additional resources for Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems [...] XA-GB
1. Consistent population trends of specialized herbivores in monocultures and polycultures where host plants are mixed with nonhost plants (after Strong, Lawton, and Southwood, 1984). 1. 5) Herbivores Source: After Andow, 1991a. aPercentage of total number of species is in parentheses. bA variable response means that an arthropod species did not consistently have a higher or lower population density in polycultures compared to monocultures when the species response was studied several times. 2).
Providing refuges for overwintering, nesting, and so on; and 4. maintaining acceptable populations of the pest over extended periods to ensure continued survival of beneficial insects (van den Bosch and Telford, 1964; Altieri and Letourneau, 1982; Powell, 1986). The specific resulting effect or the strategy to use will depend on the species of herbivores and associated natural enemies, as well as on properties of the vegetation, the physiological condition of the crop, or the nature of the direct effects of particular plant species (Letourneau, 1987).
6). , which might increase or decrease the potential for pest development under some vegetationmanagement conditions. The selection of component plant species can also be critical. Systematic studies on the “quality” of plant diversification with respect to the abundance and efficiency of natural enemies are needed. As pointed out by Southwood and Way (1970), what seems to matter is “functional” diversity and not diversity per se. This highlights the importance of recognizing that agrecosystems may not benefit from a “hit-and-miss” approach to diversification but require certain elements of diversity which, once identified, could be retained or reintroduced.
Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems [...] XA-GB by Miguel Angel Altieri; Clara Ines Nicholls