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By Professor Dr. Erich Gebhart, Professor Dr. Ruben M. Arutyunyan (auth.)
Anticlastogens in Mammalian and Human Cells covers learn at the safeguard of chromosomes from the motion of chemical mutagens by way of use of traditional and artificial antimutagens, which, due to their particular motion on clastogenic harm are known as anticlastogens. in keeping with an introductory bankruptcy on nature and mode of formation of chromosome aberrations prompted through chemical and in addition actual mutagens, the motion of anticlastogens is mentioned intimately. A definition and delineation of the time period anticlastogenesis is through issues at the quite a few chances of classifying anticlastogens. awareness is paid to the motion of anticlastogens in mammalian and human telephone tradition platforms, in vivo info on anticlastogens are awarded in nice element, as are the activities of anticlastogens on precipitated sister chromatid exchanges in a variety of try out platforms. A quite often historic side-glance on the motion of anticlastogens on chromosome harm prompted by means of ionizing radiation is taken. the sensible results of the findings on anticlastogenic motion are commonly mentioned as facets of additional research.
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In conclusion, the possibilities of the discussed methods seem to be still much lower in the field of monitoring than they are in the field of experimental screening of mutagenic action. Due to the comparative knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the induction of chromosome aberrations (as compared to SCE) and the higher indicative value of their analysis for the detection of DNA damage and more vulnerable cells (Sorsa 1984), and despite the simultaneous knowledge of all the weak points of this analysis, its important role in cytogenetic monitoring is maintained.
A clear dose response for micronucleus induction was shown in V79 Chinese hamster cells for the effect of the direct-acting agent mytomycin C, and for the indirect-acting agent cyclophosphamide (Krishna et al. 1989). Only a few in vivo results are presented here. The analysis of azathioprine (Imuran) action in the bone marrow of mice and rats has shown a dose~dependent increase in polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (Van Went 1979). Furthermore, the anti tumour agents AMSA caused a linear dose response for micronuclei frequencies in the polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow (Larripa et al.
This clastogenic adaptation was found to depend on the agents being used for conditioning and challenging, on the dose of the agents used for pretreatment, and on the time lapse between conditioning and challenging. The authors noted that clastogenic adaptation was observed for S-phase-dependent and S-phase-independent clastogens. More recently, Wolff et al. (1990a,b), studying the same effect on human lymphocytes in great detail, reported that low doses of X-rays rendered the cell resistant to the induction of chromosomal damage by subsequent high doses of X-rays.
Anticlastogens in Mammalian and Human Cells by Professor Dr. Erich Gebhart, Professor Dr. Ruben M. Arutyunyan (auth.)