Read e-book online An Introduction to Frozen Ground Engineering PDF
By Orlando B. Andersland
Frozen flooring Engineering first introduces the reader to the frozen surroundings and the habit of frozen soil as an engineering fabric. In next chapters this data is utilized in the research and layout of floor help platforms, foundations, and embankments. those and different themes make this e-book appropriate to be used by means of civil engineering scholars in a one-semester direction on frozen floor engineering on the senior or first-year-graduate point. scholars are assumed to have a operating wisdom of undergraduate mechanics (statics and mechanics of fabrics) and geotechnical engineering (usual two-course sequence). a data of easy geology will be precious yet isn't really crucial. This publication can also be invaluable to complex scholars in different disciplines and to engineers who wish an creation to frozen floor engineering or references to chose technical guides within the box. historical past Frozen floor engineering has constructed swiftly long ago a number of a long time less than the strain of necessity. As sensible difficulties regarding frozen soils broadened in scope, the inadequacy of previous equipment for coping turned more and more obvious. the appliance of flooring freezing to geotechnical initiatives during the international keeps to develop as major advances were made in flooring freezing know-how. Freezing is an invaluable and flexible procedure for transitority earth help, groundwater keep watch over in tough soil or rock strata, and the formation of subsurface containment limitations appropriate to be used in groundwater remediation projects.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Frozen Ground Engineering
Fine-grained soils. Identify in accordance with plasticity characteristics, dry strength, and toughness as described in Table 2-3. Descriptive Thickness term Stratified Alternating soils thick thin with: parting 0- II; in. 6 mm) seam II;-~ in. 7 mm) layer +-12 in. 7-300mm) stratum Greater than 12 in. (> 300 mm) Varved clay Alternating seams or layers of sand. silt. and clay Pocket Small, erratic deposit, usually less than 1 ft (300 mm) Lenticular deposit Lens Occasional 1 or less per foot (300 mm) of thickness More than 1 per foot (300 mm) of thickness Frequent Source: After Department of the Navy (19H2).
Ice lenses form in all soil types by the addition of water during stationary or slow movement of the freezing front. The supply of water and ease of movement will often determine the ice lens size or thickness. Ice lens formation is associated with frost heave in seasonally frozen ground. These lenses are composed of nearly pure transparent ice interlayered with soil. For slow freezing, foreign ions contained in the pore water remain in the melt. In perennially frozen ground, segregated ice may range from hairline streaks to pure ice masses several meters in thickness.
Muck is a dark brown to black soil, composed of a mixture of well-decomposed organic material and fine-grained soil. Muck has a higher proportion of silt than peat. Muskeg (or peat land) is any terrain covered by a layer of peat. Paisa is a round or elongated mound, maximum height of about 10 m, composed of a peat layer overlying mineral soil. It has a perennially frozen core that extends from within the covering peat layer downward into or toward the underlying mineral soil. Permafrost, or perennially frozen ground, is defined as soil or rock having temperatures below ooe over at least two consecutive winters and the intervening summer.
An Introduction to Frozen Ground Engineering by Orlando B. Andersland