New PDF release: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for
By Richard Folkson
Эта серьёзная книга посвящена альтернативным видам топлива и технологическим решениям в устройстве автомобилей для снижения негативного влияния на окружающую среду.
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Additional resources for Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation
As energy carriers, batteries are fundamentally limited by the requirement to carry the oxidant in addition to the reductant (analogous to oxygen in the air, and the fuel, respectively, in a combustion reaction). It is interesting to note that an ICE-powered vehicle would have to transport about 545 kg of air to combust 50 litres of gasoline if it had to carry its oxidant as well as its fuel, taking the mass of fuel and oxidant to almost 600 kg. Batteries are also constrained by the electrical potential available from the elements used in the construction of the cells.
Increasing vehicle volumes will also reduce the costs of batteries, motors and electrical systems as economies of scale enable lower component costs. A major difficulty for manufacturers will be the transition from low volume high cost solutions to the much lower cost high volume solutions necessary to make a major impact on global emissions. Some of this change will be driven by regulatory pressures that penalise manufacturers who fail to meet legislated fuel economy targets. It is likely that there will be large markets for pure electric cars like the Nissan Leaf for those consumers who are primarily short-distance urban drivers (Fig.
The rise, decline, and recent huge jump in biodiesel consumption can be seen, together with the gradual fall of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) consumption. Natural gas consumption (compressed (C)NG and liquefied (L) NG in Fig. 5) has shown a steady rise, and it might be postulated that the current low cost of natural gas resulting from the exploitation of shale gas reserves could lead to further significant increases. , 2012). 002% of US alternative fuel energy demand in 2009, respectively. 152 million gge for hydrogen.
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Technologies for Improved Environmental Performance: Towards Zero Carbon Transportation by Richard Folkson