3D Flash Memories by Rino Micheloni PDF
By Rino Micheloni
This publication walks the reader throughout the subsequent step within the evolution of NAND flash reminiscence know-how, particularly the improvement of 3D flash thoughts, within which a number of layers of reminiscence cells are grown in the related piece of silicon. It describes their operating rules, gadget architectures, fabrication options and sensible implementations, and highlights why 3D flash is a new technology.
After reviewing industry developments for either NAND and stable country drives (SSDs), the ebook digs into the main points of the flash reminiscence phone itself, overlaying either floating gate and rising cost capture applied sciences. there's a plethora of other fabrics and vertical integration schemes available in the market. New reminiscence cells, new fabrics, new architectures (3D Stacked, BiCS and P-BiCS, 3D FG, 3D VG, 3D complex architectures); essentially, each one NAND producer has its personal answer. bankruptcy three to bankruptcy 7 provide a huge evaluate of ways 3D can materialize. The 3D wave is impacting rising stories besides and bankruptcy eight covers 3D RRAM (resistive RAM) crosspoint arrays. Visualizing 3D constructions could be a problem for the human mind: this is often means these kind of chapters comprise loads of bird’s-eye perspectives and move sections alongside the three axes.
The moment a part of the e-book is dedicated to different very important facets, equivalent to complex packaging know-how (i.e. TSV in bankruptcy nine) and blunder correction codes, which were leveraged to enhance flash reliability for many years. bankruptcy 10 describes the evolution from legacy BCH to the newest LDPC codes, whereas bankruptcy eleven bargains with the most contemporary developments within the ECC box. final yet no longer least, bankruptcy 12 seems to be at 3D flash stories from a approach perspective.
Is 14nm the final step for planar cells? Can a hundred layers be built-in in the related piece of silicon? Is four bit/cell attainable with 3D? Will 3D be trustworthy adequate for firm and datacenter purposes? those are a number of the questions that this e-book is helping answering by means of delivering insights into 3D flash reminiscence layout, method know-how and applications.
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Additional info for 3D Flash Memories
The author’s belief is that there is no single technology that will meet all the needs and it will take a combination of new materials technologies, packaging advancements, and system and architectural innovations that will be the long-term answer. 5 What Do We Look for in the Next 5 Years? The technology industry changes too fast for analysis like this to be more than a good snapshot of current status. Thus, as the industry transitions to 3D NAND over the next few years, some of the key markers to watch are reported below.
Fig. 17 Top bird’s eye view of 3D CT memory. Bottom 3D CT-NAND string with one cell and two select transistors and schematic diagram of the charge loss paths  As a result, charge loss in 3D memories is worse than what we have seen with planar devices, and this is considered the most critical reliability issue for high density and high reliability 3D integration . In this section, physical mechanisms related to the vertical structure of the memory devices, such as vertical charge loss and lateral charge migration, will be described.
Memory cell technology. Question: will there be convergence to either Charge Trap or Floating Gate technology by the second or third generation of 3D NAND products? • NAND cell economics. Question: when will QLC (4 bits/cell) be introduced to the market, and what will be the speciﬁcations of that in comparison to 2D TLC today? • Enterprise SSD’s. Question: who will be the leaders in PCIe SSD’s (client and enterprise) longer term? Will the BYO SSD model become pervasive with large cloud operators?
3D Flash Memories by Rino Micheloni